RESEARCH OF URINE
Diastasis of urine (alpha-amylase)
Creatinine (in urine)
Urea (in urine)
Calcium (Ca) (in urine)
Urine analysis for sugar (daily serving)
Urinalysis for ketones
Urinalysis for protein (daily dose)
Microalbuminuria (in urine)
General urine analysis (physicochemical properties, sediment microscopy)
The urine of a healthy person is sterile, but can be contaminated during passage through the urinary tract and urine collection. In connection with the fact that the patient usually collects urine by himself (with the exception of children and those who are seriously ill), the collection of laboratory material and the observance of hygiene rules become very important.
See “Preparation for testing”.
Decoding of the results:
Physical indicators of urine
Urine color. The color of urine depends on the level of urochromes – special yellow pigments. Pale or colorless urine is observed with strong dilution, low urine density, chronic kidney failure, sugar and diabetes insipidus, diuretics. Dark yellow color means increasing of bile acids, use of insufficient amounts of water, with loss of fluid and intake of ascorbic acid. Urine with a color of beer is observed during various hepatitis – viral, toxic, autoimmune, lesions of liver tissue.
Blood and its components, the use of beets, cherries, blackberries, food colorings, intake of antipyretic agents, aspirin and phenolphthalein colors urine in red. Dark brown color is observed with hemolytic anemia, bilirubinuria, methemoglobinuria and porphyrinuria, with the intake of salol, trichopolum, de-nol and bismuth-containing preparations. Green urine is secreted with mechanical jaundice, and blue urine with indigo and methylene blue.
Urine transparency. Normally, the urine is transparent. Turbidity may be the result of such factors: the presence of red blood cells, leukocytes, epithelium, bacteria, fat drops, pus; precipitation of salts; because of prolonged standing.
pH of urine. Normally, the pH of urine ranges from 5.0 to 7.0 and is neutral with a shift to the acid side. A sharply acidic reaction is noted with the use of protein foods of animal origin, fever, diabetes, hunger, kidney failure, while the alkaline reaction is noted in vegetarian, as a result of cystitis and pyelitis, after vomiting and diarrhea, with the intake of soda and mineral water.
Specific weight of urine. Normally it ranges from 1.015 to 1.025. If the specific weight is below the norm there is a violation of the concentration function of the kidneys (chronic pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis), high specific weight is associated with acute glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus.
Chemical indicators of urine
Protein in urine. The protein level in the urine is very small, it is practically not detected by qualitative tests. The appearance of protein is observed with cystitis, pyelitis, prostatitis, urethritis.
Glucose in urine. Normally, practically isn’t detected (trace amounts).
The appearance testifies both the intake of food with a high content of carbohydrates, medicines (caffeine, corticosteroids, diuretics) and about pathological changes (diabetes).
Ketone bodies in the urine. It is formed as a result of the enhanced decomposition of fatty acids; detected because of alcohol intoxication, prolonged starvation, diabetes, eclampsia.
Microscopy of sediment
Leucocytes in the urine. High levels indicate inflammatory processes in the kidney or urinary tract (pyelitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis).
Erythrocytes in the urine. High levels indicate an organic lesion of the kidneys (chronic and acute nephritis) and with heavy physical exertion.
Epithelium in the urine. It is constantly present in the sediment and comes from different parts of the genitourinary system (flat, transitional, renal). Increased number of flat epithelium: urinary tract infection. The appearance of transitional epithelium: cystitis, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis. The appearance of cells of the renal epithelium: the defeat of the kidney parenchyma (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, intoxication, circulatory disorders).
Cylinders in the urine. This is a kind of protein-cellular formations. In large numbers, it indicates an organic lesion of the kidneys (nephritis, nephrosis), as well as infectious diseases.
Mucus in the urine. The reason of appearing is the urinary tract infection.
Salts in the urine. Normally, it isn’t detected.
Presence of salts of uric acid (urates): highly concentrated urine, acid reaction of urine (meat diet, fever), gout, chronic renal failure, dehydration (vomiting, diarrhea). Presence of salts of phosphoric acid (phosphates): alkaline reaction in healthy people, vomiting, cystitis, Fanconi syndrome, hyperparathyroidism. The presence of oxalic acid salts or oxalates: the use of foods rich in oxalic acid (spinach, sorrel, tomatoes, asparagus), pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus.
Remember that each laboratory, or laboratory equipment and reagents has its own norms. In the form of laboratory researches, they are shown in the graph – the norm!