Oncomarkers

If identifying during screening elevated levels of one of the oncomarkers the additional methods of research are required, without which the diagnosis is incompetent!

CA-125 is a specific marker of the ovarian tumor.

CA-125 – a glycoprotein that is present in serous membranes and tissues. In women of childbearing age the main source of CA-125 is the endometrium, which is associated with a cyclic change in the level of CA-125 in the blood depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. During menstruation, the concentration of CA-125 in the blood rises.

Quantitative determination of the content of CA-125 in human serum can be used for diagnosis of ovarian adenocarcinoma and dynamic control of its level with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the therapy, early detection of metastases, as well as predicting the course of the treatment.

The concentration of CA-125 in the blood increases with various non-tumorous diseases which involve serous membranes – peritonitis, pericarditis, pleurisy of different etiology. A more significant increase in the level of CA-125 in the blood is sometimes observed in various benign gynecological tumors (ovarian cysts), as well as in inflammatory processes involving appendages and benign endometrial hyperplasia.

CA 15-3 is a specific marker of a breast tumor.

Indications for the test: the prognosis of the course of the disease; detection of early relapses; detection of metastases; effectiveness of treatment; distinctive diagnosis of breast cancer and benign mastopathy.

Raising the level of CA 15-3 is observed in malignant neoplasms: breast cancer; bronchogenic carcinoma; stomach cancer; liver cancer; pancreas cancer; ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; uterine cancer; endometrial cancer, as well as non-oncological diseases: benign breast diseases; cirrhosis of the liver; pregnancy in the III trimester; autoimmune diseases.

CA 19-9 is a marker of malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

Indications for the test: monitoring the course of the disease of pancreatic cancer; timely detection of metastasis; assessment of the effectiveness of treatment of pancreatic cancer; observation of patients with a possible relapse of stomach cancer – in combination with CEA; REA-negative tumors of the large intestine.       

The level of CA 19-9 increases with malignant neoplasms: pancreatic cancer; cancer of the gallbladder and biliary tract; cancer of the bladder; primary liver cancer; stomach cancer; rectal cancer; cancer of the sigmoid colon; mammary cancer; ovarian cancer; uterine cancer.

Non-oncological pathology, which is accompanied by an increase in the level of CA 19-9: cirrhosis; cholecystitis; cystic fibrosis; hepatitis; cholelithiasis.

Cancer embryonic antigen (CEA) is a nonspecific tumor marker.

Smoking and, to a lesser extent, alcohol consumption affects the content of CEA .

With the development of tumors, the concentration of CEA in the serum increases and accurately reflects the condition of the malignant process. Quantitative determination of CEA content in human serum is of diagnostic importance and can be used for monitoring therapy, detecting relapses and undiagnosed cancer metastases of various localizations and organ specificity.

Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the epithelium of the tubules of the prostate.

The PSA is used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of prostate cancer when its concentration increases, as well as to monitor the status of patients with prostatic hypertrophy for the purpose of detecting cancer of this organ as early as possible.

A significant increase of the PSA level in serum is sometimes found with prostatic hypertrophy, as well as inflammatory diseases of the prostate gland. It should be noted that digital rectal examination, cystoscopy, colonoscopy, transurethral biopsy, laser therapy, urinary retention can also cause a more or less pronounced and prolonged rise of the PSA level.

The effect of these procedures on the PSA levels is maximized the day after their realization, and most significantly in patients with prostatic hypertrophy. A PSA test in such cases is recommended not earlier than 7 days after the procedures.

PSA is in two forms in the serum: free PSA and associated with various antiproteases. The level of free PSA varies depending on both the individual characteristics of the organism and the type of disease of the prostate gland.

The level of PSA increases with benign and malignant diseases of the prostate. With prostate carcinoma, the proportion of the bound fraction increases, so the ratio between free and total PSA decreases.

The determination of the PSA index is especially important when the total PSA is increased from 4 to 10 ng / ml.

For the correct interpretation of total and free PSA data, the free PSA index (Free PSA / Total PSA x 100%) is calculated

15 – 70% – favorable forecast;

<15% – unfavorable forecast, additional examination is necessary.

  1. “Women’s oncological panel” test package:
  • Ovarian cancer marker (CA 125),
  • Breast cancer Marker (CA 15-3),
  • Oncomarker of the pancreas (CA 19-9),
  • Cancer-embryonic antigen (CEA)

 

  1. “Men’s oncology panel” test package:
  • Oncomarker of the pancreas (CA 19-9),
  • Cancer-embryonic antigen (CEA),
  • Total prostate-specific antigen (PSA common),
  • Free prostate-specific antigen (PSA free),
  • The index of the free PSA.